April 24, 2005
INJURIES to the cartilage are problematic primarily because
cartilage cannot self-repair. Such injuries can result in
degenerative changes and osteoarthritis if left untreated.
Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI)
This is a clinically proven application of tissue engineering for
the treatment of full thickness articular cartilage defects.
Basically it involves regenerating cartilage using the patientís own
(autologous) cartilage cells (chondrocytes).
The technique was developed in Europe, USA and Australasia and
has proven clinical efficacy and long-term durability.
The resultant cartilage exhibits similar physiological and
biomechanical properties as the original cartilage, and the patient
can return to pre-injury activities.
In the long-term, the procedure eliminates the need for further
surgical intervention and joint replacement.
Periosteum covered ACI (PACI)
This is a technique where the cells are implanted beneath live
Stage 1: Cartiage biospy is taken
Stage 2: Chondrocytes (cartilage
cells) are isolated and multiplied in sterile culture
laboratory (four weeks).
The technique is suitable for:
1. Cartilage damage caused by
direct injury (for example sports injury)
2. Aged 15 - 55 years
3. Lesion sizes ranging from 1 - 10cm2
4. Multiple lesions
5. Most lesions of the knee and ankle(potential to
extend to shoulder, hip and elbow)
It is not suitable for:
Widespread cartilage damage
2. Osteoarthritis (slow
3. Rheumatoid arthritis (inflammatory
4. Medication likely to compromise cartilage
proliferation (steroids or chemotherapy).
worldwide joint declaration
than a simple hinge
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